“After Judas received the piece of bread, Satan entered into him. Jesus said to him, “Do quickly what you are going to do.” John 13:27
Following the readings from Saint John’s Gospel in the lectionary for this week, we come to Saint John Chapter 13 Verses 21-32, in which Jesus tells his disciples he is going to be betrayed and sends Judas out into the night.
In the two millennia since that Thursday night in Jerusalem, Judas has been treated with contempt, his name has become a byword for treachery. He is depicted as having betrayed Jesus for thirty pieces of silver, no more than the price of a slave. Occasionally, people have attempted to defend Judas, they have attempted to suggest that he was a much more complex man who deserves to be differently remembered, but the general opinion is that he deserves the reputation he gained.
Jesus is quite deliberate in his words. He tells the gathering one of them will betray him and when Simon Peter asks, “who is it?” he replies, in Saint John Chapter 13 Verse 26, “”It is the one to whom I give this piece of bread when I have dipped it in the dish.” So when he had dipped the piece of bread, he gave it to Judas son of Simon Iscariot.”
Judas stands up and goes, but why did he do what he did? Why did he give the authorities the chance they needed? Why did Judas lead the authorities to the garden where they arrested Jesus?
Three explanations have been suggested:
Firstly, that Judas was a relative of Caiaphas, the Jewish High Priest, perhaps even his nephew. The Jewish religious leaders didn’t like Jesus. Jesus challenged the authority and the influence of the Temple, and if the Temple was reduced in the influence it had, then the religious leaders influence and power would also be reduced. People have killed for a great deal less.
The suggestion is that Judas was planted amongst Jesus’ followers to keep the authorities informed. The explanation is that Judas was a small-time secret agent, a petty informer, who was working on behalf of his family.
Perhaps Judas wasn’t bad, perhaps he was just doing what he believed to be right for the family.
The second explanation is that Judas wasn’t a petty informer, instead he was a petty crook. This is the explanation that John gives Chapter 12 Verse 4-6, “he was a thief; as keeper of the money bag, he used to help himself to what was put into it”. Perhaps Judas’ only concern was to make a bit of money for himself. If this was the case, he didn’t do very well for his dealings. The payment he got for betraying Jesus would only have paid for a single slave in the market.
If Judas was an agent for his family, if he was working for uncle Caiaphas, then he had done what he wanted. If he was a criminal, he had got his money. If one of these is the full explanation of Judas’ part in the story, then why did the story turn out the way it did? Why did Judas suddenly return the money and then hang himself? The idea that Judas was an informer or the idea that he was a thief don’t explain why he should be so overcome with guilt that he died by suicide.
There is a third explanation, which seems a more satisfactory answer. It says that Judas was a member of a group of Jewish freedom fighters; Judas was a man who wanted to see the Roman armies thrown out and Israel a free country.
John was obviously aware that money was disappearing, but what was Judas spending it on? He shows no signs of wealth or the disciples would have commented, perhaps the money is going towards the cause.
If Judas was a freedom fighter he would have seen Jesus as the great leader that they needed, Jesus could work miracles, he could control huge crowds of people, he could speak in a way that couldn’t be matched. Judas may have been expecting great things in Jerusalem, a great rebellion; but nothing happens. Jesus gets the crowd behind him on Sunday, but doesn’t do anything except to cause commotion in the Temple.
So what does Judas do? He believes that Jesus is the man for whom they had been waiting, he believes that Jesus has power to change the country; all it needs is something to make Jesus act. So Judas arranges to bring the authorities to arrest Jesus. “Now is the time”, he thinks, “now Jesus will do something”. But Jesus does nothing, instead he allows himself to be arrested.
In the third explanation, Judas realises he has made a catastrophic miscalculation. He thought he could make Jesus fit in with his plans and the whole thing has gone disastrously wrong. Judas has made a most terrible mistake and he hangs himself as a failure. Judas’ name has become a byword for treachery, yet his guilt is that of political naivete, psychological misjudgement, and hubris that brought tragic consequences.
Perhaps Judas will never be fully rehabilitated, but to recognize that he tried to use Jesus for his own purposes would be to recognize that he is like countless other religious people who have exploited the name of Jesus for their own gain.
In two millennia since that Thursday night, the church might have acknowledged that Judas’ greatest failing was being as human as many people in the church in the centuries since.